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Relevant Language Advocacy Research and Reports



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Uncertified interpreters enable migrant agricultural workers in Canada’s Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program to access key resources and connect with community. Through providing a range of services, including support work and advocacy, interpreters assist migrant workers at risk of exploitation and injury in Canada. This article explores how uncertified interpreters navigate the power dynamics between migrant workers, interpreters, and other actors.

Portrait of a physician or surgeon who l

April, 2020

Since the COVID-19 outbreak, a gradual loosening of linguistic obligations in public institutions and governments has been observed in various jurisdictions in Canada. This article argues that in addition to legal requirements to provide minority language services, it is not justifiable for governments to suspend or curtail such services in an emergency situation, for reasons pertaining to public safety and public health.

Image by Isaiah Rustad

November, 2018

This report delves into the demographics of this population, considers policy and program implications and makes recommendations to support the social, cultural and economic inclusion of these residents. It is the third report in Social Planning Toronto’s census research series. In Toronto, residents who do not speak English experience significant barriers to participating in community and civic life, accessing public and community services, finding employment, and achieving a decent standard of living. This report draws upon census data from the past twenty years, including extensive use of the most recent census conducted in 2016 to create a socio - demographic profile of city of Toronto residents who speak neither official language.

Detail of stethoscope. Doctor woman with

April, 2017

Ontarians take pride in being the most multicultural province in Canada. Our province is home to over 50 percent of Canada’s newcomers, and nearly 15 percent of households speak a non-official language. This cultural and linguistic diversity is celebrated and protected through the Charter of Rights & Freedoms, the Ontario Human Rights Code, and the Canada Multiculturalism Act.



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September, 2022

Older adults living in social housing are among the most vulnerable and marginalized in the community. They face a variety of physical, mental, and social health challenges that negatively impact their ability to maintain successful tenancies. For those who do not speak English proficiently, language barriers add another layer of complexity to accessing housing supports.

Image by Ksenia Makagonova

October, 2020

The health crisis triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic is no exception, and multiple incidents and infractions have been brought to attention.

This report is the result of an in-depth analysis of emergencies that occurred between 2010 and 2020 and provides an overview of Canadians’ official languages experiences during these types of situations and identifies potential solutions to improve the federal government’s compliance with its official languages obligations.

Image by National Cancer Institute

April, 2018

Language Interpretation Services in Health Care Settings in the GTA by Anjum Sultana, Anjana Aery, Nishi Kumar, Nazeefah Laher

Clear communication is critical for the provision of safe, appropriate, and high-quality health care. With the growing linguistic diversity in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) more patients
may prefer speaking another language with their health care provider than ever before, but access to language supports is limited. Without adequate support, navigating the health care
system with language barriers can be difficult, frustrating, and potentially detrimental to the quality of care. 

I have looked at my father, at different

July, 2014

In 2012, the Toronto Central Local Health Integration Network (TC LHIN) created the Language Services Toronto (LST) program to provide an initial group of community and

health care organizations with greater access to professional over-the-phone interpreters so all patients could access care regardless of the language they spoke.



Coming soon


February, 2021

This new literature review explores findings from over 120 sources, examining research done in Canada (including findings from British Columbia (BC), Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and Nunavut) and around the world, with more than 50 items published since 2010. It organizes the literature in alignment with the four goals of the Quadruple Aim Framework: Better Health Outcomes, Improved Patient Experience, Improved Staff Experience, and Lower Cost of Care.


September, 2019

Language Policy Hackathon 2019: Report by Eliana Trinaistic and Niha Shahzad (MCIS Language Solutions/ Policy Innovation Initiative, Munk School of Public Policy, UofT)

In order to facilitate collaboration among key players in the language-facilitated access to social services and have broader conversation about a more inclusive language access infrastructure (people, data, evidence, technology, training, processes, policies, regulations), we explored a range of questions, from "how do we engage community leaders in the mental health process to build a trusted source for services in culturally sensitive situations?" to "how do we increase newcomer voter turnout among immigrants?". 

Our granny got ninety and all her grandc

April, 2018

Language barriers are a significant challenge in ensuring equitable access to health care. Ontarians who are not proficient in, or unable to speak an official language (English or French), face inequities in health care settings. Language interpretation services are an intervention to promote language accessibility in health care. To better understand the effectiveness of professional interpretation in health care we conducted a scoping review to examine the impact language interpretation services on patient and clinical outcomes. 

Image by Owen Beard

November, 2001

Language Barriers in Access to Health Care,

Sarah Bowen, B. A., M. Sc.
for Health Canada

Some sections of this report include excerpts from: Methodological and Policy Issues in Evaluation of Health Interpreter and Language Access Services (2000) by Sarah Bowen, and Dr. J. M. Kaufert, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, supported by the Multiculturalism Program of the Department of Canadian Heritage. The contributions of Dr. Joseph Kaufert in the development of this report is noted.


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